15. SHOCK

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In severe trauma, injuries there are many factors that have a harmful effect on the body: pain, blood loss, formation of harmful products in the affected tissues. Prolonged, continuous exposure to harmful factors eventually depletes the body’s protective potential, and circulatory, respiratory and metabolic disorders occur, united by one name – shock – insensibility (in English shok – shock, concussion).

Thus, shock is a serious reaction of the body to an injury, which poses a great danger to the life of the victim. Sometimes shock occurs immediately, sometimes – 2-4 hours after injury, when the body’s defenses are exhausted as a result of fighting the consequences of the injury.

First Aid. Prompt and effective first aid given for any serious injury prevents the occurrence of shock. However, if the wounded person has already developed shock, he must be given aid appropriate to the type of wound in the first place, namely: stop the bleeding, immobilize the fracture, etc. Then the wounded person is wrapped in a blanket and laid horizontally with his head slightly lowered.
If the wounded person is thirsty and there is no suspicion of abdominal organ damage, he is given mineral water to drink. The transportation of the victim in a state of shock to the hospital must be carried out with extreme care.

All measures to prevent the occurrence of shock are summarized in five principles, namely silence, warmth (but not overheating), reduction of pain, fluids (only for blood loss and burns, but never for wounds to the digestive tract) and transportation.

These principles should be remembered!

Injuries can be caused not only by severe traumatic factors, which cause shock, but also by strong emotional outbursts, feelings of indignation, astonishment. Human life is characterized by an alternation of different mental, sensual excitement, often contradictory. Each person reacts differently to these impulses. People with hypersensitivity to mental excitement, irritation, and even minor injuries, there is a short unconsciousness, called fainting.
The essence of fainting is a sudden lack of blood supply to the brain resulting from excitement, pain or simply from lack of fresh air. Fainting can also occur in people standing for example in closed meetings. In this case, the occurrence of fainting is due to overheating of the body.

Insufficient blood supply to the brain occurs as a result of dilatation of the abdominal vessels, due to which the bulk of the blood from the cerebral region enters them.
In the initial phase fainting is manifested by yawning, pale face, cold sweat protruding on the forehead, accelerated breathing. Then the person, having lost consciousness, suddenly falls to the floor. Sometimes loss of consciousness occurs without preceding signs.

Usually the person who has fainted quickly regains consciousness. This can be assisted by irritation, such as slapping the victim on the cheeks, pouring cold water or irritating the mucous membrane of the nose by sniffing a pungent odour substance. If the victim begins to breathe hoarsely or stops breathing altogether, check to see if the tongue is stuck. If breathing and pulse stop, which may be a symptom of severe heart or brain disease, resuscitation measures should be taken.



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