Cardiac arrest occurs with a direct blow to the heart, drowning, suffocation, gas poisoning, electric shock, inhibition of the circulation control center located in the medulla oblongata, in some cardiac diseases, mainly myocardial infarction, with insufficient prolonged breathing. Cardiac arrest is also observed in heat stroke, blood loss, burns and freezing.
In connection with cardiac arrest, there is a cessation of circulation, resulting in clinical death. In such a case, the only way to save the victim’s life is heart massage.
In case of cardiac arrest it is necessary to cause its contraction and stretching by artificial means. This is done as follows: the victim, laid on something hard: the ground, a table – rhythmically, 60 times per minute, squeeze the sternum in its lower half. The pressure is exerted by the inside of the wrist of one hand, preferably the left hand, which is also pressed by the right hand.
In the thorax, approximately under the lower part of the breastbone, there is the heart, which is externally pressurized by the pressure exerted by the hands. Through this, pressure is transferred through the breastbone to the heart, which is squeezed between the sternum and the spine. This pressure needs to be applied in such a way that the sternum is moved towards the spine by 5-6cm.
Cardiac massage is an effective measure of resuscitation when combined with artificial respiration; artificial respiration is necessary because when the person’s heart stops, respiratory activity also stops. If only one person performs resuscitation of the victim, he has to do both heart massage and artificial respiration at the same time. For 15 chest compressions, 3 artificial respirations are performed.
Cardiac massage is a measure requiring great care, so it is resorted to only in cases of extreme necessity.