9. STOPPING ARTERIAL BLEEDING

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Arterial bleeding is the most dangerous of all types of bleeding, because it can quickly bleed out the victim completely.

Arterial bleeding can be stopped with a pressure dressing. When bleeding from a major artery, immediately stop the blood flow to the injured area by pressing on the artery with your finger above the wound. However, this measure is only temporary. The artery is pressed with your finger until a pressure dressing is prepared and applied.

In cases of bleeding from the femoral artery, applying a pressure dressing alone is sometimes insufficient. In such cases, a noose, tourniquet or improvised tourniquet must be applied. If the caregiver does not have a standard noose or tourniquet at hand, a headscarf, handkerchief, necktie or suspenders can be used instead. A tourniquet or a loop on a limb is applied immediately above the bleeding area. For this purpose, a pocket bandage (individual bag) that acts as both a cover and a pressure bandage is very convenient. The tourniquet or loop is covered with a layer of gauze in order not to damage the skin and nerves. A tourniquet completely stops the blood flow to the limb, but if the loop or tourniquet is left on the limb for a long time, it may even die off. Therefore, the time of the tourniquet should be marked and for stopping bleeding they are used only in exceptional cases, namely on the shoulder and hip (when part of the limb is torn off, in amputations).

When the loop or tourniquet is applied, the victim within two hours must be taken to a medical facility for special surgical treatment.
Bleeding of the upper extremity can be stopped by using a sachet of bandage placed at the elbow or under the armpit while tightening the limb with a tourniquet. The same is done for bleeding of the lower extremity by placing a wedge in the popliteal fossa. However, this method of stopping bleeding is used only rarely.

When bleeding from the main cervical artery, the carotid artery, you should immediately squeeze the wound with your fingers or fist; then the wound is stuffed with plenty of clean gauze. This method of stopping bleeding is called tamponading.

Remember that a tourniquet (tourniquet) is applied for no more than 1.5-2 hours, and in cold weather for no more than 1 hour. Mark the time of tourniquet application on the bandage itself or on the paper that you put under the tourniquet (twist). After the tourniquet is applied, the victim should be given some non-alcoholic drinks and taken to a medical facility as soon as possible. If the victim is not taken to a medical facility within the allowed period of the tourniquet, the tourniquet should be loosened for a few minutes to restore blood circulation and then re-tie the tourniquet. The correctness of the tourniquet is checked by the pulse. If the pulse is palpable, the tourniquet has not been applied correctly and should be removed and reapplied.



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